Introduction of HITEP2

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Laboratory for HIgh TEmperature Physicochemical Processing of Materials

고온물리화학 소재공정 연구실

Research field and goal

Our research agenda is the optimization of ferrous and non-ferrous materials processing in a macroscopic view in conjunction with the investigation of physicochemical principles in a micro scopic view based on atomic and molecular scale. The research methodologies are balanced between high temperature (thermodynamic and kinetic) experiments and computational thermodynamic simulations.
Specifically, extractive and refining processes of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, production of high purity and high cleanliness metals, high functional and highly value-added materials processing for the structural and energy-related metals, structure-property relationship of oxide melts, etc. are carried out.

Research projects and fields of interest

Inclusion Control and Clean Steel Technology
  • 1)Inclusion control by Al & Si deoxidation in resulfurized steel
  • 2)Thermodynamics of Al deoxidation and inclusion formation behavior in high-Mn steels
  • 3)Control of spinel inclusion in molten steel by ‘slag-refractory-metal’ multiphase equilibria
  • 4)Optimization of ladle slag for ultra-low sulfur bearing steels
  • 5)Development of recovery of REE (rare earth element) and inclusion technology in high temperature corrosion-resistant stainless steels
  • 6)Thermodynamics of inclusion formation in high-Cr heat resistant steel melts
  • 7)Optimization of RH slag for automotive steel production
  • 8)Viscosity of LF slag and their influence on the cleanliness of bearing steels
  • 9)Optimization of tundish flux for production of clean steels
  • 10)Inclusion control in high entropy alloys
  • 11)Desulfurization and Inclusion control in Ni-base superalloys
  • 12) Inclusion control in high-Si electric steel
  • 12)Optimization of steelmaking and continuous casting processes for ultra-high clean stainless steels
Use of Inclusions for Steel Properties
(Inoculation Technology)
  • 1)Effect of oxides on the refinement of solidification structure of AHSS weldments
  • 2)Effect of spinel and TiN inclusion on the grain refinement of ferritic stainless steel CC slab
Fundamentals of High Temperature Physical Chemistry
  • 1)Development of ‘Refractory-Slag-Metal-Inclusion’ multiphase reaction models using FactSage
  • 2)Molecular structure analysis of slags using various spectroscopic methodologies ; FT-IR, Raman, XPS, and NMR spectroscopies
  • 3)Thermodynamics of slag-refractory interfacial reactions ; Refractory corrosion
Pyrometallurgy for Ferroalloys & Nonferrous Metals
  • 1)Physicochemical properties of MnO-base slags for refining of high functional manganese ferroalloys (FeMn and SiMn)
  • 2)High temperature smelting reduction of ilmenite for Ti production
  • 3)Molten salt design for Zr and Mg extraction process using solid oxide membrane (SOM) technology
  • 4)Thermodynamics of impurity removal from molten Cu
Sustainable Technology
  • 1)Development of reduction technology using Fe-containing steel mill wastes
  • 2)Optimization modeling of EAF process for active use of DRI for CO2 reduction
  • 3)Reduction of fluorspar consumption in EAF and LF processes
  • 4)Influence of CaF2 on refractory corrosion and refining efficiency in ladle furnace
  • 5)Optimization of ESR slag for the production of Ni-base superalloys turbines
  • 6)Recovery of precious metals (Au, Ag, etc) from electric wastes by pyrometallurgical processes
Metallurgical and Materials Transaction A
→ “The study was well planned and experimented. Good characterization work was reported. The smaller difference between the initial iron content in the zinc bath and the iron solubility limit resulted in less dross particles. This is a good conclusion that can be understood and applied by the galvanizers.”
…reviewers comments on Lee et al. (2014)
→ "Characterization of non-metallic inclusions in high Al/Mn steels is valuable to steelmakers to produce clean TRIP and TWIP for optimum mechanical properties. The elucidation of the origin and effect of selenium on inclusion formation is an important finding."
→“I congratulate the authors on a very good paper that reviews demanding steelmaking experiments and correlates the effects of that steelmaking on inclusions not just from a chemical standpoint of the inclusions but also from a shape or morphological characterization of the inclusions!! The SEM micrographs of the various types of inclusions are impressive, and should be of value for characterizing inclusions in commercial steels even though hot work would modify the shapes!!"
… reviewers comments on Park et al. (2012)
→"The paper is well written, the experiments are well planned and carried out. The paper is excellently written!! Dross formation is an important problem. This paper provides new interesting insights in their formation.”
… reviewers comments on Park et al. (2012)
Journal of the European Ceramic Society
→" The paper is a useful contribution to the area of refractory corrosion and worthwhile to be published. Interesting and original results have been put forward in this paper.”
...reviewers comments on Park et al. (2010)
Journal of the American Ceramic Society
→"The proposed mechanism of dissolution of the refractory into slag should be of interest to steelmaking. This is a thorough piece of work on an interesting system."
...reviewers comments on Park et al. (2015)
→"The authors have done an excellent work in setting up the experiments and evaluating the corrosion behaviour."
→"I think this is a well-written paper on a subject of interest to the readership. The subject itself is quite interesting. The experimental part was well designed and performed using a combination of powerful techniques. The experiments were carefully done and the results are interesting for researchers working with Refractory Materials. The paper does report worthwhile information which, I think, should be published."
reviewers comments on Suk and Park (2009)
→"This manuscript presents systematically studies on the effect of slag compositions on the phase transformation and the microstructure evolution during the cooling cycle by SEM-EDS techniques. Such systematic work will certainly help understanding the variation and crystallization of slag in the real stainless steelmaking process."
reviewers comments on Park (2006)
ISIJ international
“It is quite excellent that the inclusion evolution from spinel to liquid type and/or MgO is comprehensively clarified. The experimental work has been sufficiently conducted in conjunction with the two ways of calculations, RESMI and FactSage. Therefore, the reviewer highly evaluates the present work.”
...reviewers comments on Shin and Park (2018)
"This paper reports the relationship between the macroscopic viscosity and the structure examined by Raman spectroscopy of low-silica calcium aluminosilicate melts. This paper reports very extensive experimental works with excellent discussion."
...reviewers comments on Kim and Park (2014)
CALPHAD
→"This is a good paper to understand the solidification path of ferritic stainless steels. The base alloy chemistry is complex and the computational work is worthy.
→“With his new work submitted to this journal presents a completely new work of a certain originality and good scientific quality. The manuscript fits well to the field of this journal, since it refers to the application of computational thermodynamics connected to excellent experimental constitution studies!! The presentation is very clear and well structured.”
...reviewers comments on Park (2011)
→“With his new work submitted to this journal presents a completely new work of a certain originality and good scientific quality. The manuscript fits well to the field of this journal, since it refers to the application of computational thermodynamics connected to excellent experimental constitution studies!! The presentation is very clear and well structured.”
...reviewers comments on Park (2011)
Materials Chemistry ans Physics
→"This is a good paper to understand the solidification path of ferritic stainless steels. The base alloy chemistry is complex and the computational work is worthy.
→" The authors obtained results providing new information on the rate of ZrCl4 evaporation/sublimation from a TGA arrangement. The results are essentially publishable. The authors ought to be congratulated for a good piece of work.."
...reviewers comments on Shin and Park (2014)
→" The authors obtained results providing new information on the rate of ZrCl4 evaporation/sublimation from a TGA arrangement. The results are essentially publishable. The authors ought to be congratulated for a good piece of work.."
...reviewers comments on Shin and Park (2014)
Journal of Alloys and Compounds
→ “This paper provides valuable information on the type, constitution, size distribution of non-metallic inclusions and their effects on the mechanical properties of Cantor alloy. This paper is essentially publishable in the JAC. Studying deeply NMI in HEA is a novelty. This topic is of interest for future development of HEA. That's why this article should be considered for publication.”
... reviewers comments on Choi, Lim, Na, Glatzel and Park (2018)
→“The authors investigated the interface structure of TiN/MgAl2O4. The study is timely and of high quality.”
...reviewers comments on Park et al. (2017)
Ceramics International
→ “The paper is well-organized and can be accepted in its current form. The paper has a good value in both scientific investigation and technical application for refractories.”
...reviewers comments on Han et al. (2018)
ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineerubg
→ “The paper proposes a three step process to treat mobile phones WEEE. Methodology seems accurate. The content of the manuscript is interesting, and it provides great information on recycling of mobile phone.”
...reviewers comments on Park et al. (2019)
Steel Research International
→ “The reviewer truly appreciates for your tasks to summarize so many literatures in terms of inclusions in stainless steels. I find it very excellent and helpful for the researchers and engineers in the field of specialty steels. The manuscript is quite well written and very comprehensive.”
→“The paper provided an overall picture and state of the art of the inclusions in stainless steels. I considered this paper as a new contribution to the field of stainless steel quality control, and it is worthwhile to be published. I have no further comment and correction on the content of the paper.”
...reviewers comments on Kang and Park (2017)
→“The paper provided an overall picture and state of the art of the inclusions in stainless steels. I considered this paper as a new contribution to the field of stainless steel quality control, and it is worthwhile to be published. I have no further comment and correction on the content of the paper.”
...reviewers comments on Kang and Park (2017)

Evaluation of research results

Metallurgical and Materials Transaction B
→“This manuscript is an important contribution to predict inclusion formation and evolution in steel, and is also very meaningful to practical application. The findings are meaningful and helpful for metallurgical researchers and steel workers. Furthermore, the paper is with strong innovative ideas.”
...reviewers comments on Shin and Park (2020)
→“Very good work interpreting industrial data from process fundamentals! This is a unique manuscript in the sense it is able to look at EAF (industrial) slags and come out with factors that affect foaming with deep fundamental analysis. FACTSAGE calculations have been used extensively. The approach has a strong fundamental bias which is very positive and much needed for looking at industrial phenomena. My congratulations to the authors.”
→“The presented aspect for the slag foaming phenomena in EAF operations associated with thermodynamic calculations and phase diagram predictions are very suggestive and useful for better understanding of the slag foaming behavior not only for EAFs but for hot metal pretreatments.”
...reviewers comments on Heo and Park (2019)
→“The manuscript investigated the effect of temperature on reaction mechanism of ilmenite ore smelting for titanium production. The manuscript is well presented and the topic is of industrial importance to the utilization of titanium. The manuscript is suggested to be accepted.”
...reviewers comments on Kim et al. (2019)
→“At the same time, steel-slag-inclusions chemical reactions are still going on, therefore, change of inclusions would be very complex, and further deep insights are quite needed and remained to be elucidated. Rightly, this topic was well shown in this paper. This study is a good work. The study is on an important topic and in a way a novel approach.”
...reviewers comments on Shin and Park (2018)
→“The paper provides an excellent introduction to the topic, which picks up the reader and leads him to the purpose of the authors' work. In the experimental part, especially the illustration of the used apparatus is very good and helps the reader to understand the experimental procedure. At the end, a clear conclusion is given, which summarizes the most important assertions. The paper's topic is interesting and important for steel producers.”
...reviewers comments on Lee and Park (2018)
→“The work is really appreciated in the direction of developing a kinetic model that can predict steel, slag and inclusion changes occurring during ladle refining. The modeling philosophy is also in line with other contemporary works.”
...reviewers comments on Shin and Park (2017)
→“Methodological approach follow by authors of present paper is surely very good and research results are proportionated to such a remarkable effort.”
...reviewers comments on Kim, Chung, Holappa and Park (2017)
→“The number of works on Indium behavior in slags is very limited and this is a very valuable study, particularly noting the relatively wide range of experimental conditions covered.”
“Paper addresses important problem. Valuable experimental data are obtained. Theoretical analysis is very interesting and performed to a high level. Obtained results may have important practical implication.”
...reviewers comments on Han and Park (2015)
→“This is an excellent paper combining viscosity measurements with structure: 1. Good experimental work on both viscosity and structure (via Raman spectroscopy), 2. The authors exhibit a thorough knowledge of the subject, 3. Their arguments are persuasive.”
...reviewers comments on Park et al. (2015)
→“Systematically well written and provides detailed information on the inclusion composition. The suitable composition window for the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-based slag for the inclusion composition control in terms of Al2O3 has been clearly shown, which gives the straightforward guide for steelmaking engineering.”
...reviewers comments on Park et al. (2014)
→“Excellent work joining slag liquidus calculations, kinetics, effective viscosity, experimental work. The way the work is presented indicates a strong understanding from the authors.”
… reviewers comments on Heo and Park (2013)
→"The article provides useful information that is important to the design of pyrometallurgical processes that aim to recover indium. The manuscript itself is very useful and may provide a clue how to recycle indium from indium containing industrial waste."
...reviewers comments on Ko and Park (2012)
→"This paper describes a lot of valuable information on interfacial reaction between CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 flux and Fe-Al based alloys with high Mn contents. This paper contributes a lot to the metallurgical reactions in molten slag and liquid Fe alloys containing high Mn contents. Those Fe alloys are base alloys for TRIP and TWIP steels which should be used as light weight steel in future automobiles."
...reviewers comments on Kim and Park (2012)
→"This manuscript contains new data, which is helpful for developing and improving metal refining processes. The experiments, analysis and discussion were carefully done based on traditional method."
...reviewers comments on Heo and Park (2012)
→"High temperature experiment based on reducing condition is a good and laborious work. This is well-done work on a topic of some interest."
...reviewers comments on Shin and Park (2012)
→"The better deoxidizer to obtain a better solidification structure of the alloys was obtained. Both nice experimental work and thermodynamic analysis were performed in the paper. Very nice work!!"
→"Great article!! Important info even to make several articles!! Good comparison on deoxidizers/alloying element effect on oxygen and nitrogen content, grain size effect through acicular ferrite at different times after alloying. Very comprehensive work!!"
...reviewers comments on Park et al. (2012)
→"Great article!! Important info even to make several articles!! Good comparison on deoxidizers/alloying element effect on oxygen and nitrogen content, grain size effect through acicular ferrite at different times after alloying. Very comprehensive work!!"
...reviewers comments on Park et al. (2012)
→"Great article!! Important info even to make several articles!! Good comparison on deoxidizers/alloying element effect on oxygen and nitrogen content, grain size effect through acicular ferrite at different times after alloying. Very comprehensive work!!"
...reviewers comments on Park et al. (2012)
→"Overall presentation of the material is good and some of the work covers new ground that has not been previously published. The work has some new aspects, particularly in relation to engineering liquid inclusions in Ti containing stainless steels."
→"Very interesting topic for good recent use. Applicable for steel cleanness and precipitation research in steel metallurgy. Clear to read. Congratulations!"
reviewers comments on Park, Lee, and Gaye (2008)
→"This is a well executed work which is of theoretical and practical interest. The literature survey was done well. The trial to link viscosity and structure of melts is something of a novelty in this field and the approach seems to be succeeded with the accurate experimental data. This is a carefully done study and it is succeeded to explain the Al2O3 behavior as an amphoteric oxide from both experimental and theoretical approaches.""
→"The influence of Al2O3 on slag properties is of great interest and is a very timely topic due to the need to develop casting fluxes for TRIP steels. The experiments seem to have been carried out very precisely. It has since long been thought that Al2O3 at low amounts incorporates itself into a Si-network and increases viscosity but at higher amounts imposes its own structure. This paper offers an experimental validation of this. The authors' results, viscosity, FTIR and thermodynamic calc. seem to be mutually consistent and in agreement."
reviewers comments on Park, Kim, and Min (2008)
→"This paper does an excellent job describing the mechanism of spinel formation in high alloyed stainless steels, and provides excellent experimental and theoretical support for the proposed spinel formation mechanism. The results of this work will be of benefit to both researchers and industrial producers. The author proposes a distinct range of inclusion compositions that avoid spinel formation in this system, clearly outlines the mechanisms of inclusion evolution during steel processing, and proposes several methods by which the inclusion composition control can be achieved."
reviewers comments on Park (2007)
→ "The topic is of great interest to inclusion engineering. An investigation on the composition, morphology and formation mechanism of the spinel-type inclusions is meaningful for improving the cleanliness of the steels."
reviewers comments on Park and Kim (2005)
→"The authors have experimentally proved the amphoteric behavior of Al2O3 for viscous flow in the CaO-SiO2(-MgO)-Al2O3 systems. There is a good example connecting thermophysical property of slag with thermodynamic and microscopic structure. The manuscript is clearly written."
reviewers comments on Park, Min and Song (2004)
Ironmaking & Steelmaking
→ “Congratulations on an excellent manuscript.”
...reviewers comments on Kim, Holappa and Park (2020)
Scientific Reports
→ “This manuscript analyzed the relationship between the grain size of as-cast and cold rolled ferritic stainless steel and the ridging phenomenon during the forming processes. The motivation of the work is clearly presented in a concise way with a good research work.”
...reviewers comments on Lee et al. (2019)